The Babylonian Captivity Timeline
||The Babylonian Captivity
- The Northern Kingdom of Israel is destroyed by the
Assyrian Empire and its inhabitants dispersed throughout the Assyrian
- Led by
the city of Babylon is completely destroyed by the Assyrians.1
- Josiah becomes king of Judah 2
- Death of Judah's king Josiah during battle with Egyptian
Necho II (2 Kings 23:29).4
- The people make Jehoahaz, son of Josiah,
who was 23, king . He
reigned only 3 months (2 Kings 23:31).5
takes Jehoahaz off the thrown and makes Eliakim the son of Josiah king and changes his
name to Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:33-36 ).
- Jehoiakim forms an alliance between Judah and Egypt.
The First Babylonian Deportation
II becomes king of Babylon.
- Nebuchadnezzar defeated Egypt at
Carchemish in Syria in the spring of
605 B.C. at the beginning of the 4th year of Jehoiakim's
rule (Jer. 46:2).
Daniel says it is the 3rd year (Dan. 1:1) because he is
using the civil calendar.6
Babylonians invade Judah. Judah
becomes a tribute state to Babylon (2 Kings
rebels against Babylonian rule (2 Kings 24:1).
- First wave
of deportation of Jews to Babylon takes place in the eighth year of Jehoiakim's
(2 Kings 24:12) . Nebuchadnezzar takes Jehoiakim and
certain sons of the Jewish nobility hostage including Daniel
(Dan. 1:1-3, 1:6; II Kings 24:14).
taken captive and begins to prophesy.
taking captives, Nebuchadnezzar returns to Babylon were is is crowned king
after his father's (Nabopolassar)
- Babylonians battle Egypt, both sides
- Judah decides to realign itself with
Egypt, the prophet Jeremiah warns not to rebel against the Babylonians.
- Jehoiakim died and was succeeded by Jehoiachin (also
known as Jeconiah and Coniah. See 2Kings 24:6, 2Chron 36:8) Jehoiachin was
18 when he became king and reigned
only 3 months (2 King 24:8).
The Second Babylonian Deportation
- After Jehoiachin rebels
against Babylonian rule, Nebuchadnezzar returned to bring Judah back into subjection. Among those
taken captive (16 March 597)8 were
Ezekiel, and "all the captains and all the mighty men of valor, ten
thousand captives" Mattaniah,
Johoiachin’s uncle, who is
renamed Zedekiah by Nebuchadnezzar was made governor
of Judea by Nebuchadnezzar (2Kings 24:10-17). The
most valuable treasures of the temple and the royal palace were carried
away along with the captives. Zedekiah
is 21 years old, "and he reigned eleven years in
Jerusalem" (2Kings 24:18).
- Ezekiel was called as a prophet (Ezek. 1:1-2).
- Ezekiel saw the vision of idolatry in Jerusalem (Ezek. 8:1ff).
- Certain of the elders of Israel came to Ezekiel to inquire of Jehovah
- King Zedekiah, encouraged by Nebuchadnezzar's absence from the region,
and probably bolstered by Pharoah Psammetichus II, rebelled against
Babylon (2 Kings 24:20).
- In the ninth year of Zedekiah's
reign, on the tenth day of the tenth month, Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to
Jerusalem. (2Kings 25:1,. Ezekiel 24:1)
- Ezekiel was told, "The king of Babylon has laid siege to Jerusalem this very
day," and the parable of the boiling pot was given (Ezek. 24:1 ff).
- Ezekiel received the word of the Lord concerning Egypt (Ezek. 29:1ff).
- The Lord told Ezekiel, "I have broken the arm of Pharaoh king of Egypt"
- The word of the Lord concerning Pharaoh came to Ezekiel (Ezek. 31:1ff).
The Third Babylonian Deportation
- The word of the Lord concerning Tyre came to Ezekiel (Ezek. 26:1ff).
- On the ninth day of the fourth month, there was no longer any food in
Jerusalem, as a result of the famine brought on by the Babylonian two year siege. (2 Kings 25:3)
- In the fifth month, Jerusalem fell. The temple, the king's house, and every
great house were burned, and the walls were broken down. Zedekiah's sons are
killed in his sight, his eyes are put out, and he is taken to Babylon.
- The Babylonians destroy Jerusalem and
the Temple (9th of Av
- Jerusalem’s walls and gates are burned with fire.
100,000 Jews were slaughtered and millions more exiled.10
- Third wave of Jews deported to Babylon.
Enough people remained to maintain the harvest.11
- Third Babylonian Exile12
- Nebuchadnezzar begins his thirteen year long attack on
the city of Tyre13
- "The city has been taken,"
was the message that came to Ezekiel in Babylon (Ezek. 33:2118).
- Ezekiel took up a lamentation over
Pharaoh (Ezek. 32:l ff).
- The word of the Lord came to Ezekiel
describing Pharaoh in Sheol14 (Ezek. 32:17-32).
- Ezekiel saw the vision of the New
Jerusalem (Ezek. 40:1ff).
- Nebuchadnezzar finally succeeds in capturing the
mainland city of Tyre after a 13 year siege (585–572 BC).15
- The fate of the land of Egypt was
revealed to Ezekiel. It would be given to Nebuchadnezzar because "he and
his army had no wages from Tyre for the labor that he had performed
against it," (Ezek. 29:17-21).
- Cyrus becomes king of Persia.16
- Cyrus conquers the Medes.16
- Cyrus conquers Babylon beginning of the Persian Period to 33216
Judah's captivity comes to an end:
- The Decree of Cyrus II allowing Jews to
return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple.17
- Some of the Jews returned to Jerusalem in the first year of Cyrus of
Persia (see 2 Chr. 36:22-23, Ezra 1:1-4). Only fifty thousand availed
themselves of the decree of Cyrus. They were led by Zerubbabel, grandson
of Judah's king Jehoiachin, in the line of King David; and arrived on the site of their
ancient capital just seventy years after its first humiliation under
Nebuchadnezzar, and in the latter part of the year 538 B.C. No Hebrews from
the other captivities seem to have taken any part in this revival.
- The Jews rebuild their Temple (70 years)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylon#Assyrian_period. See also
Antiquities Of The Jews by Flavius Josephus, Book 10, Chapter 11
Fall of Judah. Free Essays.
http://www.essays.cc/free_essays/f3/nyv241.shtml 7 January, 2011
this article for a description of the differences between the Jewish and
civil calendars. 7 January, 2011
7. He is "Pharaohnechoh" in
the King James Bible (2 Kings 23:29, 23:33, 23:34, 23:35). The English Standard
Version has "Pharaoh Neco." He is also known as
8. Babylonian captivity,
9. Tisha B'Av.
HAPPENED ON THE NINTH OF AV?
12. The Hebrew for 'exile" is Galut or Golus and classically refers to the
exile of the Jewish people from the Land of Israel.
13. Nebuchadnezzar II.
'grave', 'pit', or 'abode of the dead', is the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible's
underworld, a place of darkness to which those outside of faith in a coming
Messiah go, a place of stillness and darkness cut off from God."
15 Nebuchadnezzar II.
Cyrus the Great
Rather than "the twelfth year of our exile, on the fifth of the tenth month,"
some manuscripts have "the eleventh year . . ." at Ezekiel 33:21. If this
alternate reading is correct, the message that the city had been taken would
have come a year earlier.
* The actual date of this event varies from
October 29, 540 BC (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyrus_the_Great#Neo-Babylonian_Empire),
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonian_captivity. Oct 12, 539 B.C.
"Accordingly his first year, in which he made the proclamation, was 538/537
B.C.", the Handbook of Bible Chronology by Jack Finegan (Princeton
University Press, 1964), p. 170. October 12-13, 539 B.C., Julian Calendar, or
October 6-7, 539 B.C., according to our present Gregorian Calendar. http://onlytruegod.org/jwstrs/537vs539.htm